Option buy call and put
The seller or "writer" is obligated to sell the commodity or financial instrument to the buyer if the buyer so decides. The buyer pays a fee called a premium for this right. The term "call" comes from the fact that the owner has the right to "call the stock away" from the seller.
Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the call contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility. Determining this value is one of the central functions of financial mathematics.
The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options. Adjustment to Call Option: When a call option is in-the-money i. Some of them are as follows:. Similarly if the buyer is making loss on his position i. Trading options involves a constant monitoring of the option value, which is affected by the following factors:. Moreover, the dependence of the option value to price, volatility and time is not linear — which makes the analysis even more complex.
Because you can force the seller of the option to buy your shares at a price above market value, the put option is like an insurance policy against your shares losing too much value. Purchasing options can give you a hedge against losses, and in that sense, they can be used conservatively. But there are many options strategies that amount to little more than gambling and can increase your risk to a frightening degree. Remember, when a call is exercised, stock must be delivered by the seller of the call.
If a strong market advance or a major announcement by the issuer has driven the share price up sharply, your losses could be enormous. As indicated, many option strategies involve great complexity and risk.
For this reason, not all options strategies will be suitable for all investors. In fact, with the exception of sophisticated, high net worth individuals who can afford and are willing to incur substantial losses, the writing of puts or uncovered calls would be unsuitable for just about everyone. Nevertheless, brokers sometimes engage in inappropriate options trading on behalf of customers who do not understand the risks.
If you have lost assets because your stockbroker was engaging in options trading, please contact us today.