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Subscales include emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect. The PCL-5 is a 20-item self-report assessment instrument developed to assess DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology based on the criteria changes with the introduction of the DSM-5. Confirmatory factor analysis delineated a common higher order factor explaining covariance between the subscales and was developed and validated based on the common finding that problem behaviors co-occur.

Skewness was assessed through evaluating the absolute values and graphically through examining the shape of the distribution of study variables. Patterns of missing data were first evaluated and all missing values were determined to be missing completely at random (MCAR).